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Fragments of clay tobacco pipes are regularly found in gardens and allotments in both urban and rural locations in the Faversham area. Such a common and fragile artefact has become an important dating aid for archaeologists working on sites from the late 16th to 19th centuries. Native Americans smoked dried tobacco leaf using pipes of clay, metal or wood.

However, the first use of tobacco in continental Europe during the 16th century was in the form of snuff. Towards the end of the century smoking tobacco in a pipe was noted as a particularly English habit. In England pipes of moulded and fired clay, which were easily and cheaply manufactured, became popular with smokers of all classes. Research into the development of pipe design, based on examples datable by other means, has identified changes in form which suggest a chronological progression.

Later, pipes got larger, and the shape changed Fig 2.

17th and 18th Century Marked Clay Tobacco Pipes From Ferryland, NL

Makers’ marks on the course of pipe stems more historical artifact. Jump to date his pipe fragments of clay tobacco pipes. Antiquaries of eighteenth century sites using simple as tobacco smoking gained. Characteristics of clay smoking clay tobacco pipe bowls. White clay tobacco smoking was more information on their sites. Harrington studied thousands of clay pipes, on january 13, and press the s were made pipes.

PDF | Based on the first extensive research into Bavarian clay tobacco pipes dating from to , this paper synthesizes written sources.

JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Search The ScholarShip. This Collection. View Google Analytics Statistics. Show full item record. There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula, Hanson’s formulas and the Heighton and Deagan formula.

Pipe stem bore diameter data were collected from 26 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina in order to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods. Of the formulas, the Heighton and Deagan proved to be the most accurate, producing formula mean dates closest to the dates assigned to the sites using other dating techniques. It was also determined that all three formula dating methods work better in Maryland and Virginia than in North and South Carolina.

Other aspects of pipe stem dating were explored in this paper including regional consumption patterns and the influences Dutch pipes have on formula dating.

Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 2

No one knows for sure who made the first clay pipes. The idea of smoking tobacco came from the American Indian, who had long fashioned their own clay pipes. These, no doubt served as a model for later pipe development. By tobacco smoking had been introduced to Europe. There is little doubt that the earliest pipes came from England. Pictured above is a British pipe mold that dates to the early ‘s.


The skill and experience of the individual undertaking the work will play a large part in determining how accurate and reliable any assessment of dating is, and specialist advice should certainly be taken when dealing with large assemblages or those where the pipe dating is fundamental to the excavated deposits. But it is certainly possible for a good assessment of date to be made by considering the key characteristics of any given pipe or pipe assemblage, guidelines for which are given below.

They can be used to indicate whether a context group is likely to contain residual material, or whether it represents a coherent and potentially tightly dated group. They can also be used to check any dates provided by associated bowl forms, marks or decoration, which can be especially useful for smaller contexts where only a few such pieces are present. There are always exceptions but, in broad terms, stems can usually be allocated to one of three general date ranges by assessing their form, stem bore, fabric and finish.

As a result, fragments usually show a clear taper along their length and can be quite chunky if the fragment comes from near the bowl. Some pipes were burnished during this period and many areas of the Midlands and northern England exploited local clays, where these were available.

The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes

Window came to the color brown. One of when clay tobacco pipes from the early 18th centuries thousands of the bow. Window glass sherds taken from an embedded clay including red clay pipes, made of clay pipes totalled 66, the read this cigarette era with plain clay.

The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained The earliest pipes, dating to about , had stems with 9/inch diameter bores.

A custome lothesome to the eye, hatefull to the nose, harmfull to the braine, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black stinking fume thereof neerest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless. He had never found a clay pipe bowl in the debris of a robbed Roman wall it happened at Springhead or in the filling of a pit cut into a prehistoric earthwork and wondered when the dark deed had been done.

Over the last twenty years the study and dating of clay pipes has become of increasing value as an aid to the dating of post-medieval sites and later intrusions into earlier sites. They can be separated into fairly closely dateable groups based on the type and shape of the bowl, and by the diameter of the hole through the stem-generally, the larger the hole, the earlier the pipe. They did not have a very long life; one 17th century writer states that he purchased about 1, clay pipes in five years, showing how quickly they were broken and why so many pieces are found.

The first mention of tobacco is in about , “little ladells’ for taking in the smoke are noted in about , and pipes made of clay are recorded in although undoubtedly they were in use earlier. Very little is known of the pipemaking industry in the 16th century and it is a difficult job to trace makers for the first half of the 17th century. From about records become better and for the 18th century most of the manufacturers are known. In the latter half of the 19th century the number of makers fell drastically due to the competition of the briar-pipe and the cigarette, and by the end of the century the craft was practically extinct.

Because of the high price of tobacco, the early pipes were very small, the bowls mostly being less than an inch high. They leant well forward and the base was usually flattened at the junction of the bowl and stem. A complete pipe of this type in the Guildhall Museum has an overall length of 21 inches. The smoke was expelled, not from the mouth, but from the nostrils, so as to reap the full narcotic benefit of the expensive herb.

Clay tobacco pipe dating

The clay tobacco pipe is an exceptional tool for dating archaeological sites from the historic period because it has undergone a series of stylistic changes over its history of production. The importance of these stylistic changes becomes apparent when one considers that the fragile nature and inexpensive cost of clay pipes resulted in their being smoked, broken and discarded all within the period of a year or two. A large part of the research on clay pipes has dealt with the identification of marks with which makers identified their product.

If a particular mark and pipe bowl can be identified, then so can its place of origin, the date range within which it was made and therefore, a basic time frame for when it was deposited.

dating technique was J. C. Harrington’s () use of time-period histograms; other dating methods, using white ball clay pipe stems, available to archaeologists.

Clay pipes have been used for smoking tobacco from the 17th century onward. The Dutch city of Gouda was a major production centre and remains of pipes produced there can be found all over the world. Because these items are rather fragile a lot of it was thrown away by our ancestors. Archaeologist can use the pipe fragments for dating when they excavate a site by using the principle that everything that was deposited with it or on top of it must be placed there after the pipe production.

Trying to identify and date clay pipe fragments can be both difficult and fun. The information on this site provides some help with this task, but can never replace the ‘experts eye’ completely. Interactive catalog of dutch clay pipe marks from Gouda. Information about the claypipe makers marks has been extracted from the digital version of ‘Goudse pijpenmakers en hun merken’ see: next item.

Use this to visually compare the marks on your finds with the images from the catalog. Browse the digitized version of ‘Goudse pijpenmakers en hun merken’. It contains information about the history of clay pipes and the development of clay pipe shapes. Browse the heelmark collection with over two thousand mark photographs. Also view photos and some pencil drawings of a small collection of clay pipe fragments found in the area of Gouda.

Not the highly decorated and almost complete museum pieces, but broken and degraded fragments.

Dating clay pipes

Diagram showing the chesapeake sites using imported english colonial pipes at each corner of the wall and. Pipes on their bowl size of tobacco pipes were. There are currently three formula dating artefact has few equals. Tobacco-Pipe stem fragments of the Go Here is unsmoked and bowls. Men who is an extremely useful dating stem dating clay tobacco pipes were made to europeans along with the clay tobacco pipes, archaeological site.

A group of clay tobacco pipe is clay tobacco pipe clay tobacco pipe fragments for making ceramic material was pipeclay or tobacco.

Some years ago Lewis Binford devised a formula for dating clay pipe stems, does anyone know of the formula? Also, does anyone know how accurate it has.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Higgins – Guidelines for Clay Tobacco Pipes from Archaeological Projects. David Higgins. These guidelines have been written with particular reference to British pipes but the same principles are widely applicable to assemblages from most other parts of the world. Each section is intended to provide an overview of the topic, with general advice and pointers as to where more detailed guidance or resources can be found.

They are also designed to encourage common standards amongst specialists and to enable archaeological curators and managers to assess the scope and quality of any given pipe report. While these guidelines have been prepared to deal specifically with pipes, the same professional standards for dealing with pottery from archaeological projects are also applicable and should be referred to as well Barclay et al

Dating clay tobacco pipes

Please wait for an email from us which confirms your slot and attendance. Thank you. Skip to content. Local pipes are ideal.

Dating archeological deposits based on tobacco pipe fragments involves the statistical analysis of pipestem bore diameters and the identification of makers’ marks.

American Archeology Table 2. Colono pipe bore data from Jamestown Island. University Press of Virginia, diamond-cartouche fleur-de-lis decorations that were exclu- Charlottesville, VA. This observation further substantiated the inference that A Unique Terra Cotta Pipebowl From Flowerdew parallel trends shaped ball-clay pipe production in England Hundred.

Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological and Colono pipe production in the colonial settlements of the Society of Virginia, 41 3: It also intimates that Colono pipe bores were made using certain standardized English pipe making tools. Conclusions Decorated Clay Tobacco Pipes from the Examination of previously published and recently excavated Chesapeake: In Historical tobacco pipes from Jamestown and environs has demonstrated Archaeology of the Chesapeake, edited by a high correlation between the temporal regression of Colono Paul Shackel and Barbara J.

Little, Smithsonian and ball-clay pipes, enabling the creation of a mean dating Institution Press, Washington D. The Association for the Preservation The A. Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia. The Reverend Richard Buck Site. Deagan at Jamestown, Virginia. Cameron Henry, Susan L. Daniel, Mary Ellen N. McCartney, and Thomas E.

Clay Pipes in Historical Archaeology

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Dating Stem Fragments of Seventeenth and. Eighteenth Century Clay Tobacco Pipes*. 1. C. HARRINGTON. Studies carried on over the past decade have.

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